What is the best alternative to Ubuntu?
The best alternatives to Ubuntu are Linux Mint, Elementary OS, Fedora, Debian, openSUSE, and Manjaro.
How do I set up Sudo in Linux?
1. Login as the root user on the system. 2. Type the command: apt-get install sudo 3. To add a new user to the sudoers file, type the command: usermod -a -G sudo <username> 4. To edit the sudoers file, type the command: visudo 5. Add the user to the sudoers file with the text below: <username> ALL=(ALL) ALL 6. To confirm the changes, type in the command: sudo -l 7. All users added to the sudoers file will now be able to use sudo commands.
How to disable or set SELinux to permissive mode?
1. To disable or put SELinux into permissive mode, you can use the following command: sudo setenforce 0 2. You can also edit the /etc/selinux/config file and set the SELinux mode to permissive. To do this, open the config file in a text editor, find the line that reads SELINUX=enforcing, then change it to SELINUX=permissive. Save and close the file, then reboot your system for the change to take effect. 3. You can also use the graphical interface provided by your Linux distribution. Look for the settings for SELinux in the Security or Administrative Tools section. You can then select the permissive mode and save the settings.
What are the Linux network commands?
1. ping: Tests a network connection. 2. traceroute: Traces the route taken by packets over an IP network. 3. ip: Displays network configuration and routing information. 4. netstat: Displays active network connections & protocol statistics. 5. arp: Displays, adds, and deletes entries in the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) table. 6. hostname: Displays or sets a system's hostname. 7. ifconfig: Configures network interface parameters. 8. nmap: Network exploration and security auditing tool. 9. nslookup: Queries DNS name servers for DNS information. 10. route: Views and manipulates the IP routing table.
What are the different types of port scans in Linux?
1. TCP connect scan: This type of port scan uses the full three-way TCP handshake to connect to the target port in order to determine if it is open. 2. TCP SYN scan: This type of scan sends a SYN segment to the target port without completing the three-way handshake. If the port is open, then a SYN-ACK will be sent as a response; if not, then an RST packet will be sent. 3. FIN Scan: This type of scan sends FIN packets to the target port; if the port is open, then an RST packet is sent as a response. 4. XMAS Tree Scan: This type of scan sends a TCP segment to the target port with the FIN, URG, and PSH flags all set to 1. If the port is open, then an RST packet will be sent as a response. 5. NULL Scan: This type of scan sends a TCP segment to the target port with no flags set. If the port is open, then an RST packet will be sent as a response. 6. ACK Scan: This type of scan sends an ACK segment to the target port; if the port is open, then no response is sent, but if it is closed, then an RST packet will be sent in response.
Where are the passwords of the users located in Linux?
Passwords in Linux are stored in the /etc/shadow file.
Why does my Linux server freeze up?
There are several possible causes of a Linux server freezing up. The most common causes are memory leaks, hardware and software incompatibilities, outdated software, insufficient disk space, misconfigured services, and a system overload. It is important to try to determine the source of the problem before attempting to resolve it. If the problem persists, it may be necessary to restart the system or back up important data and restore the server.
How to check if a Linux driver is working?
1. Run the command "lsmod" to check the installed modules and their status. 2. Check the device log files with their entry in the /var/log/ directory. 3. Check the device name or driver name in the output of the command “lsusb” or “lspci -v.” 4. Inspect the output of “dmesg” command. 5. Utilize “lshw” command to know more about the driver. 6. Confirm if the driver is loaded with “modinfo module_name” command. 7. Under sysfs, check the state file of the drivers in the path /sys/devices/module_name/state. 8. Search for the driver in “/proc/interrupts” to identify any hardware interrupts.
Where can I find the latest version of Samba on Linux?
The latest version of Samba on Linux can be found on the official Samba website at https://www.samba.org/samba/download.html. Alternatively, you can also use a package manager to install the latest version of Samba on Linux.
How to take Linux file system backup?
1. Create a Full Backup of Your Linux File System To back up all files, directories, and system data from your Linux file system, you can use the built-in command line utility, tar (tape archive). Using tar, you can easily create a full backup of your file system and save it to an external drive. To begin, use the following command to make a copy of the Linux system file system in the same PATH you are currently in. $ tar -cvpf /backup/backup.tgz / The -cvpf flags indicate that tar should create (-c) a verbose copy (-v) with preservation (-p) of ownership, permissions and all directories, files, and link (-f) from the root directory / . The output file (/backup/backup.tgz) is where the tar archive containing the backup will be stored. 2. Use the rsync Command Another option to back up your file system is to use the rsync command. rsync is a great utility for quickly backing up files and directories locally or remotely. To back up a complete system file system, you can use the rsync command as indicated below: $ rsync -azvh --delete / /backup/rsync_backup The switches and flags used with rsync are: archive (-a), compresses file data (-z), is verbose (-v), and provides information on a transfer’s progress (-h). The additional --delete flag helps ensure that all files and directories in the source are also included in the backup without needing to manually list each one. 3. Create a Clone of Your Linux File System Another option for backing up your entire Linux file system is to create a clone of the file system using a command-line based disk cloning utility such as partclone. Partclone is a utility used for creating disk images or cloning partitions for backup purposes. The partclone command used for cloning a filesystem is as follows. $ partclone.ext4 -c -s /dev/sda1 -o /backup/filesystem_clone.img The flags used in this command are used to clone (-c) a source partition (-s) located at /dev/sda1. The clone output (-o) is stored in /backup/filesystem_clone.img. Once the cloning process completes, the cloned image can be mounted and used to restore the original file system. Conclusion Backing up your Linux file system is an important part of system administration. Thankfully, with a few simple commands, you can easily make a complete backup of your Linux file system just in case it ever gets corrupted or you need to restore a file or two.


How to install and configure NFS server on Linux?
1. Install the NFS Server Package Before you can start configuring the NFS server, you first need to install the package on your Linux system. To do this, you can use the package manager of your Linux distribution. For example, on Ubuntu and Debian systems, you can use the apt command; sudo apt install nfs-kernel-server On CentOS, RHEL or Fedora systems, you can use the yum command; sudo yum install nfs-utils 2. Configure the NFS Exports Once the NFS server has been installed, you can configure its exports. An export is a file path which will be shared by the NFS server. To configure your exports, edit the file /etc/exports. For example, if you want to share the directory /var/nfs, you can add the following line to the /etc/exports file; /var/nfs *(rw,sync,no_root_squash,no_subtree_check) 3. Start the NFS Server Once you have configured your NFS exports, you will need to start the NFS server. You can do this using the systemctl command; sudo systemctl start nfs-server 4. Mount the NFS Shares Once the NFS server is running, you can then mount the exported NFS shares on a client system. To mount the NFS share, you will need to specify the NFS server IP address and exported file path; sudo mount /mnt
How much RAM do I need for Linux?
It depends on many factors, such as the type of Linux you're using, how large your workloads are, and how much RAM your computer's hardware can support. Generally speaking, if you plan to use Linux as a desktop, you should have at least 4GB of RAM. For server workloads, more RAM is usually recommended.
How to kill TCP connection in Linux?
1. Use netstat command The netstat command line utility can be used to display all open internet connections on a Linux system, including the established TCP connections. To display all established TCP connections, use the command: $ netstat -an | grep 'ESTABLISHED' 2. Use the lsof command The lsof command can be used to display all open files and their associated connections on a Linux system. To display all established TCP connections, use the command: $ lsof -i tcp | grep 'ESTABLISHED' 3. Use the kill command Once the established connections have been identified, the kill command can be used to terminate the connection.] For example, to kill an established connection with TCP port number 6000, use the command: $ kill -9 `lsof -i tcp:6000 | awk '{print $2}'`
Can You dualboot Ubuntu and win10?
Yes, you can dual-boot Ubuntu and Windows 10. There are many tutorials available online to help you set up a dual boot system.
How do you enable selinux?
To enable SELinux, you need to open your system's configuration file and set SELINUX=permissive or SELINUX=enforcing. The change will take effect after a reboot or after running the setenforce command.
How to check RAM on Linux?
1. Use the “free” command- This command will display the total amount of free and used physical and swap memory in the system, as well as the buffers used by the kernel. 2. Use the “top” command- This command provides a dynamic real-time view of a running system including process, memory, and swap utilization including memory on a specified daily timing. 3. Use the “ps command”- This command will display information about the currently running processes, including the amount of memory used by each process. 4. Use the “htop” command- htop is an interactive system-monitor process-viewer and it can show the memory usage over different time intervals. 5. Use the “sar” command- ‘sar’ stands for ‘System Activity Report’ and is used to get information about the current state of the system such as memory usage, disk space usage, paging and interrupts.